Thursday, March 25, 2010

Islamic Financial Institutions:Between Values Inculcation And Profit Maximization

Leading an organization relates directly or indirectly with the worldview that drives the organization. Capitalism recognizes the need to achieve efficiency, as for the 'unlimited' demand that we get, we will always have 'limited' resources. That, we can say 'noble'. However, need to be understood that behind the ‘noble’ objectives of this worldview, they puts profit maximization as main objective above all cost[1]. A sustained growth due to the profitability gained by the organization however reflects absence and proves how problematic 'classical' capitalism worldview is hence you have to deal with such issues like exploitation of labor, disregard for society, deterioration of the environment and so forth.

Scientific and technological revolution had also played a big role in shaping industrial revolution. Protestant ethics also does help. It is being impregnated with enlightenment values that are humanist and secular in nature. Moreover, idea of Darwinism spillover effect unto economics thinking added the chaotic elements into the equation. This issue being highlighted by Prof. Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas in many of his writings, whereby Western civilization is like broken mosaic[2]! So we must understand how these many pieces come and made up into a big picture. Thus we must go back to the fundamental discussion of how we should perceive the correct worldview.

If we wanted to conclude by saying sustainable growth and profitability of the organization is a valid measurement to value the effectiveness on the organizations inculcating the values, I doubt it. Since the values inculcated by the organizations should be seen from various aspects. Western economists like EF Schumacher, Theodre Roszack, Paul Hawken and so forth have already elucidating many good points about it. But the fact is Western big organizations with big amount of profit still having problem to adjust with the main problem they faced- which is inculcating correct values to their organizations before they end up with failure of ethic-management despite the fact of having good system of management. Some may take this issue as a serious problem while some others may still views growth of the organizations as their main objective although have shed people's blood and undermining the environment for mere profit making.

Western economics have teaches the important of ethics through ecological economics. Due to this some organizations which practices 'modern' capitalism includes other 'costs' into consideration, thus look at the socio-economic and environmental impact of its operation. But if you go deeper to the root cause, one will find the problem of worldview that can never be solve merely by introducing ecological economics. It needs the touch of faith-based system which we could firmly believe as a comprehensive system that includes value inculcation. A faith-based system that we believes able to shows the way of simplicity, active and real redistribution of wealth, with that the needs of society can be satisfied.

The question that we should not look back is whether in the context of IFIs, values inculcation in any of IFIs should be taken seriously since so called Islamic organizations shall not fall into this worldly trap of making money out of people's livelihood. Effectiveness of values inculcation on organizations should be measure from many aspects whereby not only emphasizing more on cost effectiveness, efficiency but rather how often do people consider things like equity, accessibility, availability, quality and so forth.

Ethical issues in IFIs should be viewed and considered as ‘cost’, or at least it is in the equation, and it yields positive results. Most people think that jump into the field of finance or the likes just the matter of getting a hold of a job in the IFIs and make money. Are we go to universities for such objective! Then what about the importance of ethics and the fiqh muamalah? Of this catastrophic we face now, IFIs responsible to have illuminated Islamic worldview to be implemented in the fundamental of business operations.

Profit maximization indeed recognized in Islam, however it is not the ultimate objective of how Islamic organizations should be operates. Interesting to note here, Tan Sri Muhammad Ali Hashim's idea on ‘Jihad Business’, CEO of Johor Corporation with his idea reflects an interesting idea of how Islamic organizations should be operated. The idea of jihad in doing business is such a unique idea and reflects that religion should, ideally, lower the standards of the believer, that they should be satisfied with less, differing the idea on how the Western view economics with the worldview of ‘unlimited wants’ that driven the market with the idea of profit maximization[3].

Ethics, is a way a validating actions. IFIs are being understood to be govern by Shariah, where actions are categorized into valid, invalid, disliked, recommended, or indifferent. Thus without understand and have full knowledge of religion boundaries (Shariah framework), IFIs can’t easily validate some pretty sick stuff that will later on jeopardize their image as Islamic organization. Example is when validating such products or services that lead to the economic destruction in the name of market 'justice' and efficiency; this is not how the spirits of IFIs should look like.

Value inculcation in IFIs shall be given extra attention from those in leadership positions in IFIs to start to affect the type of change needed to prevent dysfunction in the organization as laid out by Patrick Lencioni which he sees from the matters of trust, commitment, conflicts, accountability and results-driven[4]. Effective value inculcation in IFIs can be seen from the products and services that being offer to the society as a whole. This is where the Maqasid Shariah plays its role in their functions.

The prime objectives of Maqasid al-shariah is centralized on the objective of accomplishing the development of both the spiritual and socio-economical well-being of Muslims. Adl or Justice is another very important principle and objective of the Shariah and its purpose is to create and maintain equilibrium within a society. “The goal of shariah is the good (maslahah) of human being as vicegerent in the society he lives in, accountable to Allah who made him in charge for establishing justice and fairness, ensuring intellectual and social wellbeing and psychological contentment for every member of the ummah.”[5]. The fulfillment of justice can bring social and moral uplift in the society in which there is no crime, life security, honors that could bring peace in the society.

Thus IFIs should play its role by serving social objective, not only an individual objective. The noble vision to promote social welfare of the society is in need to develop a welfare economics oriented paradigm, and he also believes that the social justice and ethical norms can be exercised. Despite that fact, IFIs are equally expected to play a leading role in promoting social-welfare. Their opinion are supported by the majority of the Muslim economists who posit that Islamic banking is much more than offering Shari`ah compliant products. It is a system which aims at making a positive contribution to the fulfillment of the socio-economic objectives of the community at large[6].

From the discussion above we must understand that the value inculcation may be cultivated through top-down approach, or/and with grassroots approach. Approaches that encompass 2-level of bottom-up development which is in terms of individuals and the organizations themselves.

The individual aspect relates to something that within human’s spiritual domain; development of aql (reasons), qalb , nafs.This will help to determine one’s attributes; mazmumah, mahmudah. These feeling of inward relation are between individuals with God via faith and piety and the outward relation with mankind by good attributes. Cooperation shown merely to support such fardhu kifayah systems form a sustainable relationship as mentioned in the Quran ‘wa Hablum Minanas wa Hablum Minallah’. These reflects the senses of belongings that will never be found in any other worldview other than faith-based system[7].

In a small scale of IFIs, it is something that potential and manageable to be implemented and surely something will that later on result an effective management. Development of human inner sphere is considered to be more important than profit maximization. We believe that Islamic development afresh within human inner-self Islamic development paradigm can help the individuals to survive side by side with existing conventional development system. Moreover, the system able to provide comprehensive Islamic development model which elastic enough to expand to state level wherever possible. This is what we believe as the power of grassroots approach if the IFIs successfully implementing it.


Ibn Yusof

25 March 2009 / 9 Rabi Thani 1431

11.18 p.m

[1] Shutt. H. (2005). The Decline of Capitalism: Can a Self Regulated Profits System Survive?. Malaysia: SIRD.

[2] Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas. (1995). Prolegomena to the Metaphysics of Islam: An Exposition of the Fundamental Elements of the Worldview of Islam. Kuala Lumpur: ISTAC.

[3] “Jihad Biisnes” Satu Pendekatan Strategik Ke Arah Pemerkasaan Ekonomi Ummah, Kongres Ekonomi Iislam Ke Tiga (Ke-3)

[4] The Five Dysfunctions of a Team: A Leadership Fable

[5] Shidiqi, Nejatullah (2006), Islamic Banking and Finance in Theory and Practice: A Survey of State of The Art, Journal of Islamic Economic Studies, Vol.13 No. 2, p. 6.

[6] Asyraf Wajdi, and Nurdianawati Irwani Abdullah. (2006). The Ideal Of Islamic Banking: Chasing A Mirage?

Retrieved January 16, 2009, from


[7] Muhammad Suykri Salleh and Choudhury, M.A. (1996), 'Grassroots Approach to Sus- tainable Development', Humanomics, Vol. 12, No. 3.

Thursday, March 18, 2010

Cara Mengurus Pendapatan/Harta Haram Dari Perspektif Fiqh Muamalah

Tatkala kita sedang sibuk melaksanakan tugas harian, kadang kala kita lupa membuat penilaian atas sumber-sumber perolehan pendapatan. Persoalan tentang dari mana? untuk apa? Berapa? Dan pelbagai macam jenis persoalan yang melibatkan sumber pendapatan kita kadang kala kita ambil enteng. Hendaklah diketahui bawasanya di antara tanda-tanda semakin dekatnya kiamat ialah munculnya riba secara maharajalela di dalam masyarakat dan ketidakpedulian mereka terhadap makanan yang haram. Dari Ibnu Mas'ud radhiyallahu anhu dari Nabi Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam, beliau bersabda.

"Menjelang datangnya hari kiamat akan merajalela riba". [Hadith sahih riwayat Thabrani dalam At-Targhib Wat-Tarhib karya Al-Mundziri 3:9]

Selain itu, diriwayatkan juga dari Abu Hurairah Radhiyallahu 'anhu bahawa Rasulullah Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam bersabda.

"Sungguh akan datang pada manusia suatu zaman yang pada waktu itu orang tidak memperdulikan lagi harta yang diperolehnya, apakah dari jalan halal atau dari jalan haram". [Sahih Bukhari, Kitab Al-Buyu', Bab Qaulil-Lah Azza wa Jalla : "Yaa ayyuhal-ladziina aamanuu ta'kuluu ar-ribaa" 4 : 313, dan Sunan Nasa'i 7 : 234, Kitab Al-Buyu', Bab Ijtinaabi Asy-Syubuhaat fi Al-Kasbi].

Kandungan atau isi hadith-hadith ini telah terbukti pada banyak kaum muslimin pada masa sekarang ini. Mereka tidak memilih yang halal lagi dalam berusaha, bahkan mereka kumpulkan saja harta baik dari jalan halal mahupun dari jalan haram. Dan kebanyakan hal ini kerana keterlibatan mereka dalam muamalah riba dan segala mcam tipu daya yang berkaitan dengannya.

Betapa jeleknya situasi ini sehinggakan ramai kita menganggap ianya perkara remeh. Ramai lupa bahawa praktik atau masyarakat kita telah menjadi lali dengan memakan riba secara berlipat ganda, tambahan pula ada yang tidak lagi mempedulikan cara mencari harta serta tidak membezakan antara yang halal dan yang haram.

Maka berlaku kemungkinan tanpa kita sedari bahawa dalam sumber pemilikan harta itu terdapat sisa-sisa atau daripada sumber yang haram. Justeru sesuatu perlu dilakukan oleh pemilik harta untuk memastikan kehidupannya diberkati oleh Allah.

Ini kerana harta daripada sumber perolehan yang haram tidak boleh dimanfaatkan oleh pemiliknya walau apa jua tujuannya. Jika berbelanjakan harta dari sumber perolehan yang haram, maka perbelanjaan itu tidak akan mendapat apa-apa kebaikan atau keberkatan daripada Allah. Rasulullah memberi amaran dalam sebuah hadis yang bermaksud:

“Barangsiapa yang mengumpulkan wang haram dan kemudian bersedekah dengannya (membuat kebajikan), maka tiadalah sebarang ganjaran kebaikan untuknya.” (Hadith diriwayatkan oleh Imam al-Hakim)

Harta atau wang yang haram itu bermaksud sesuatu yang diperolehi dengan cara yang tidak diiktiraf oleh syarak. Contohnya mendapatkan wang daripada hasil riba, rasuah, wang hasil pecah amanah, pelaburan ke atas perniagaan haram, hasil penjualan barangan haram, jualan barangan curi dan sebagainya. Justeru kesemua cara memperoleh pendapatan yang tidak diiktiraf syarak ini perlu dilupuskan bagi membersihkan keseluruhan harta yang dimiliki. Dalam bermacam cara pelupusan yang dianjurkan oleh Islam antaranya ialah:

(i) Memulangkan harta haram tersebut

Harta haram yang diperolehi dengan cara yang tidak bertepatan dengan syarak tidak boleh dimanfaatkan atau digunakan oleh pemilik harta tersebut. Jika dia memperoleh harta itu dengan mencuri, maka hukumnya ialah dia terpaksa memulangkan semula barangan yang telah dicuri itu kepada tuannya. Jika gagal memulangkan kepada pemilik asal harta tersebut, serahkan kepada warisnya, tetapi jika gagal juga menemukan warisnya, maka dibolehkan menyeedekahkan harta haram itu.

Barangan atau wang haram juga boleh melibatkan hak sekumpulan orang, dan tidak dapat dipulangkan semula secara adil kepada semua yang terlibat seperti di dalam sebuah organisasi yang besar dan melibatkan ramai orang di dalamnya. Maka apa yang boleh dilakukan ialah dengan membayar secara tunai barangan yang telah diambil atau manfaat yang digunakan, bayaran tunai boleh dimasukkan ke dalam akaun organisasi dan secara tidak lansung merupakan bentuk pemulangan semula kepada tuan empunya organisasi.

“Barangsiapa yang menzalimi kehormatan atau apa jua (harta) saudaranya hendaklah ia meminta halal daripadanya pada hari ini sehingga jangan tinggal satu dinar atau dirham jua. (Jika tidak di hari kiamat) sekiranya ia mempunyai amal soleh, maka akan diambil amal solehnya dengan kadar kezaliman yang dilakukan, dan kiranya ia tiada lagi kebaikan, maka akan dipertanggungkan kejahatan orang (yang dizaliminya itu) pula.” (Hadith diriwayatkan oleh Imam Bukhari)

Pemulangan barang atau manfaat yang digunakan secara haram ini disebutkan di dalam sebuah hadis yang bermaksud:

“Kewajiban atas tangan (yang mencuri) apa-apa yang diambilnya, sehinggalah ia memulangkannya.” (Hadith diriwayatkan oleh Imam Baihaqi dan Tirmidzi)

(ii) Menyedekahkan harta haram tersebut untuk tujuan kebaikan

Bersedekah ini bertujuan untuk memenuhi salah satu perintah atau salah satu syarat bertaubat, bukannya bertujuan untuk mendapat pahala. Hal ini dibolehkan walaupun ianya datang daripada sumber yang haram kerana dengan bersedekah manfaat itu berbalik kepada tujuan umum dan kebaikan ramai. Ada pandangan ulamak yang berpendapat bahawa sedekah wang haram ini hanya dibolehkan kepada golongan fakir dan miskin sahaja manakala ada juga ulamak fekah yang tidak mengehadkannya.

(iii) Membina masjid atau surau

Untuk melupuskan wang haram dengan menyerahkannya bagi tujuan pembinaan masjid atau surau atas tujuan untuk kebaikan awam. Ini tidak ubah seperti perbincangan untuk menyedekahkannya, tetapi apa yang difokuskan dalam hal ini ialah dengan menyerahkan wang tersebut kepada Baitul Mal, maka badan kebajikan yang dipercayai ini akan menggunakan wang tersebut untuk membina masjid atau surau. Hal ini dibolehkan jika mengikut pandangan para ulamak Hanafi dan mazhab Syafie.

Justeru para ulamak fekah ada juga yang berpandangan cara melupuskan wang haram dengan cara ini adalah tidak bersesuaian kerana rumah Allah tidak seharusnya didirikan dengan harta yang diperoleh daripada cara haram. Hal ini seperti mana yang pernah berlaku pada zaman pembinaan Kaabah yang dikawal supaya tidak mengandungi harta haram, maka halnya juga sama bagi pembinaan masjid atau surau.

(iv) Dan apa jua cara lain yang dibenarkan oleh syarak

Apabila telah sepakat kesemua empat mazhab yang muktabar bahawa tidak boleh pemilik harta yang haram memandaatkannya, maka harta haram tersebut wajib dilupuskan. Apa yang boleh diambil hanyalah wang pokok atau modal yang digunakan oleh pemilik harta tersebut. Melupuskan harta haram adalah suatu usaha bertaubat. Caranya tidak terhad kepada menyedekahkannya kepada fakir atau miskin, malah apa jua cara yang dibenarkan oleh syarak adalah dibolehkan.

Kesimpulannya, bermula dengan taubat yang bersungguh, kemudian memulangkan atau menyedekahkannya, kemudiannya hendaklah berhenti daripada memperolehi harta dengan cara yang haram.

Rujukan lanjut:

-Asyratus Sa'ah Fasal (Tanda-Tanda Kiamat Kecil) oleh Yusuf bin Abdullah bin Yusuf Al-Wabil MA Edisi Indonesia Tanda-Tanda Hari Kiamat hal. 108. terbitan Pustaka Mantiq. Penerjemah Drs As'ad Yasin dan Drs Zaini Munir Fadholi.

Ibn Yusof

18 March 2010/2 Rabi' Thani 1431

11.39 p.m